Kangchenjunga is also the third highest peak in the world, pronounced Kanchenjunga. In a part of the Himalayas, it rises at an altitude of 8.586 metres in the west of the Tamur River, in the north the Lhonak Chu and the Jongsang La River and in the east the Teesta River, in the Kangchenjunga Himal. It is located between Nepal and Sikkyim, India and the other two peaks (west, kangbachen) and three peaks (Main, Central and south) are located directly at the border of Nepal.
Kangchenjunga was considered the tallest mountain in the world by 1852, but computations made in the Indian Grand Trigonometric Survey of 1849 based on different readings and measurements led to the conclusion that Mount Everest, then known as the Peak XV, was the tallest. In 1856 Kangchenjunga was formally declared to be the third highest mountain in the world to further verify all measurements.
The first ascent of Kangchenjunga was by the British Joe Brown and George Band on 25 May 1955. They stopped just before the summit, in line with Chogyal ‘s pledge that the mountain top will remain intact. This practise was observed by each climber and climbing party that came to the summit.
The Official Spelling of Kangchenjunga is the best indication of the Tibetan pronunciation provided by Douglas Freshfield, Alexander Mitchell Kellas and The Royal Geographical Society. The spelling used by the Indian Government since the late 19th century was identified in Freshfield. Kanchenjunga, Khangchendzonga and Kangchendzönga are alternate spellings.
The local names “Kanchinjínga” (“the five jewels of high snow”) were described by Brothers Hermann and Adolf, and Robert Schlagintweit, which are derived from the Tibetan word “gangs,” meaning the meanings snow, ice; “chen” means big, “mzod” means treasure; “lnga” means five.
Local Lhopo people think the riches are concealed but show them in the danger to the devotees when the earth is in danger; their riches include salt, yellow, turquoise and precious stones.
The name in the Limbu language of Kangchenjunga is Senjelungma or Seseylungma and is assumed to be the abode of Yuma Sammang, the almighty goddess.
The environment of Kangchenjunga consists of three distinct ecoregions: large and coniferous forests in the eastern Himalayas, alpine shrub and wilderness in the eastern Himalayas, and savane and green areas in the Terai Duar region. The transfrontier Kangchenjunga ecosystem, which comprises 14 protected areas with a total of 6,042 sq km, is divided between Bhutan, China , India and Nepal (2329 sq mi):
Kanchenjunga Protected Area in Nepal.
Sikkim, India: National Park Khangchendzonga, Rhododendron Sanctuary, Rhododendron Sanctuary, Shingva Rhododendron Sanctuary, Kyangnosla Alpine Sanctuary, Maenam Wildlife Sanctuary.
Singalila National Park, Senchal Wildlife Sanctuary, Jore Pokhri Wildlife Sanctuary and Neorska Valleys National Park, India: Jore Pokhri Wildlife Sanctuary.
Bhutan: Wildlife Reserve Torsa Strict
These protected areas form the habitats of many world-renowned plant species such as rhododendrons, black bears, red pandas, bell-white Musk deer, Blood Pheasants and Castonic Partridges, and many other endangered flora species such as snowleopards.
The Himalayan portion of the Kangchenjunga is situated in Nepal and India and comprises 16 summits over 7,000 m. It is bounded by the River Lhonak Chu and Goma Chu to the north and the River Teesta to the east. The western boundaries of the Gingsang and Kangchenjunga glaciers and the Ghunsa and Tamur banks from the Jongsang La. The Knights Junga rose approximately 20 km south of Mount Everest, approximately 125 km east-south east of the total alignment of the Great Himmalayan Range. The Singalila Range, which separates Sikkim from Nepal and northwest Bangali, runs south of the southern slope of Kanchenjunga on an altitude of 9,800-1,500 metres.
A massive mountain massif is created by the Kangchenjunga and its satellite peaks. The following table describes the top five peaks of the massif.
From north-east to south-west, the main ridge of the massif forms a watershed to many rivers. They form a gigantic cross along with ridges extending from east to west. The ridges are hundreds of peaks between six thousand and five hundred and five hundred and fifties. The north segment includes Yalung Kang, central and southern Kangchenjunga, Kangbachen, Kirat Chuli and Gimmigela Chuli, and it touches Jongsang La. Siniolchu is part of the eastern ridge in Sikkim. The southern part of the boundary between Nepal and Sikkim comprises Kabru I to III. This ridge crosses the Singalila Ridge to the south. In Kumbhakarna, also named Jannu, the west ridge culminates.
From the summit four large glaciers radiate into the north-west, south-west, and north-west. The northeastern Zemu Glacier and the south-east Talung Glacier pass down to the Teesta River; southwest Jalung Glacier and northwest Kangchen Glacier to the Arun and Kosi Rivers. The floor of the glaciers stretches for about 5,000 m and the glacialized floor occupy a total of about 314 km2. The Kanchenjunga Himal is home to 120 glaciers, 17 of which are riddled with garbage. More than half of five hundred glaciers surveyed were retreated between 1958 and 1992, probably because of the rise in air temperature.
The Brahmaputra basin, which is part of the South East Asian Monsoon Regime and is one of the largest river basins in the world, is at the peak of the Kangchenjunge Major. In the Koshi basin which is one of the largest adjacent to the Ganges, Kangchenjunga is one of six peaks above 8,000 m (26,000 ft). The Ganges Basin also contains the Kangchenjunga massif.
While Kangchenjunga is the world’s third highest peak, it is only 29th topographically, which is an indicator of the significance of an individual mountain. At 4,664 metres (15,302 ft), the Kangchenjunga Main Col sits on the shoreline of the rivers Arun and Brahmaputra. However, after the Everest ranges, this is the 4th highest peak in the Himalayas and the western and eastern anchors of the Himalayas, Nanga Parbat, and Namcha Barwa.
The top of Kangchenjunga consists of four climbing routes, three from Nepal, southwest, northeast and one from Sikkim in India, and one from Sakkim in northeast India. To date, just three time successfully took the north-eastern road from Sikkim. The Indian Government has banned Kanchenjunga expeditions and since 2000 this road is blocked.
Early reconnaissances and attempts
From April 1848 to February 1849, he studied plant selection and distribution of Himalayan flora in the parts of northern Sikkim and eastern Nepal. He stayed in Darjeeling and made many tours through the valleys of the river and the foothills of Kangchenjunga at a height of 4.760 m (15,620 ft).
Spring 1855 sailing to the north from Germany’s adventurer, Hermann Schlagintweit, because of the Nepalese-Tibetan War. In May he went on a meteorological tour across the Singalila Ridge up to the Tonglo summit.
Sarat Chandra Dies and Lama Ugyen-gyatso crossed Tibet, on their way to Lhasa, through East Nepal and west of “Kanchanjinga.” In 1881 they came back down the same direction.
Together with two Swiss mountain rangers, a party of William Woodman Graham climbed the Kangchenjunga region in 1883. They became the first people to climb Kabru 30–40 feet below the peak (9.1-12.2 m). They went through the Kang La Pass and reached an altitude of almost 19,000 feet (5,800 m) to Jannu. They decided that it was too late in the year to pursue and came back to Darjeeling again.
Rinzin Namgyal searched Kangchenjunga’s north and west side between October 1885 and January 1886. He was the first indigenous surveyer to map the Kangchenjunga circuit and presented drawings from both the summit and the adjacent valleys. The boundaries of Nepal, Tibet and Sikkim were also established in this region.
In 1899 British mountaineer, the Italian photographer Vittorios Sella, Douglas Freshfield left with his own party. They became the first mountaineers to look at the lower and high walls of the Kangchenjunga Glacier and the west slope of Kangchenjunga.
The first attempt to ascend a mountain was made in 1905, led by Aleister Crowley. Aleister Crowley was a member of the team seeking to climb K2 in 1902. On the Southwest side of the mountain before turning back the team achieved an average altitude of 6.500 m (21.300 ft). Crowley said that, when the team was forced to evacuate in Camp 5 by the possibility of avalanches, “we definitely had more than 21,000 feet (6 400 m) and even more than 22,000 feet (6,700 m)” on August 31. They apparently proceeded on 1 September; some members of the team, Reymond, Pache, and Salama, “took over the wrong patch” that required them to go to Camp 5 the day before and advanced “out of sight and hearing” before they returned with packets to Crowley, who couldn’t get through the dangerous field unassisted. How far Reymond, Pache and Salama have come up is not clear. But in brief, Crowley went “We were about 25 000 feet tall” (7.600 m). Climber Alexis Pache (who, before the day, had been one of the three to ascend probably higher than the other) and three local porters, were murdered by a landslide, undertaking a late-day “substantial” descent from Camp 5 into Camp 4. While one of the men argued that “the demon of Kangchenjunga was sacrificed,” Crowley concluded that adequate was necessary and that the continuation of his work is unacceptable.
In 1907 there were two Norwegians climbing Jongri south across the Kabru glacier which Graham’s party seemed to ignore. Progress was very sluggish, due in part to supply and porters issues and potentially lack of health and acclimation. However, they could hit a point 50 to 60 foot (15 to 18 m) below the summit at a high camp of around 22.600 ft. (6.900 m) before the powerful winds switch them down.
The German Pavil Bauer led an excavation party in 1929, which reached 7,400 m (24,300 ft) in the northeast spur before a five-day storm turned it around.
In 1929, the American E.F. Farmer, along with his native porters, left Darjeeling and crossed the Kang La to Nepal to ascend the Talung Saddle. When his porters declined to proceed, he went up by floating skeletons alone, but did not return.
The German Uli Wieland, the Austrian Erwín Schneider and the Englishman Frank Smythe who attempted to climb Kangchenjunga in 1930 led a foreign expedition by Guenter Dyhrenfurth. The bad weather and snow conditions forced them to crash
Paul Bauer headed a second German exploration party in 1931 that sought to stimulate the North-East until he had been repelled by poor weather, plague and death. After climbing 300 m above the 1929 attempt, the party, including Peter Aufschnaiter, receded.
John Klemen headed a faction in 1954 that included J. W. Tucker, G. R. Lewis, S. R. Jackson, T. H. Braham and D. S. Mathews. S. Mathews. They visited the upper Yalung Glacier in order to find a realistic path to the major ice shelf that passes over Kangchenjunga ‘s southwest face. This recognition led to the fruitful expedition of 1955.
In 1955, Joe Brown, George Band and Norman Hardie made their first rise on 25 May and Tony Streather made their first climb on 26 May. The entire squad included John Clegg (team doctor), John Angelo Jackson, Tom Mackinnon and Charles Evans (team leader). The ascent showed the feasibility of the 1905 course of Aleister Crowley (also explored by acknowledgment in 1954). The path begins with the Yalung Glacier to the south-west of the summit and scales the 3,000 m high Yalung Face. The key feature of this face is the broad sloping plateau (Great Shelf) at about 7,500 m above sea level, which has a hillside glacier. The road is almost full on snow, glacier and icefall; a limited number of rock trips can be made on the top of the mountain itself. The first ascent expedition consisted of six camps, two below the shelf, two below and two above their base camp. They began on 18 April, and by 28 May everyone had returned to the base camp. This is accelerated by other participants
Other notable ascents
1973 By ascending southwest mountain, the Japanese Yutaka Ageta and Takeo Matsuda summited the Kangchenjunga West, sometimes referred to as Yalung Kang. Never did Matsuda return to camp and never found his remains. The expedition concluded that when he was separated from Ageta, he sank during the descent.
1977 Colonel Narendra Kumar led the second ascent of Kangchenjunga by an Indian army unit. They finished the northeast spur, the strong ridge that overthrew German expeditions in 1929 and 1931.
1978 The Polish teams ascended the Kangchenjung South (Wojciech Wróż and Eugeniusz Chrobak on 19 May) and Central Junga on 22 May for the first time.
1979 Doug Scott, Peter Boardman and Joe Tasker set up a further path on the North Ridge, their third climb on 16 May and their first one without oxygen
1982 6 May Ang Dorje (Spain from ambibic liver abscesses) and Friedel Mutschlechner (Swallows) and Reinhold Messner reach the top without supplementary oxygen by changing the north face lane.
The first solo ascent was made by Pierre Beghin in 1983. It was achieved without the use of extra oxygen.
1986 The first winter ascension was made by the Polish climbers Krzysztof Wielicki and Jerzy Kukuczka on 11 January. The Junior (Brazil) and Johann Krigeer (South African) of Otto Guilherme Gerstenberger reach the height with no extra oxygen.
1988 American Expedition First successful; headed by the North Face Carlos Buhler. Summits were kept by Buhler, the Austrian Peter Habeler and the Spanish Martin Zabaleta.
1989 All four Kangchenjunga summits above 8,000 m were successfully crossed by a Soviet expedition. In the same direction two separate teams reached the summits.
Lou Whittaker ‘s U.S. Expedition 1989 with six Northwall Summits: George Dunn, Craig Van Hoy, Ed Viesturs, Phil Ershler, Larry Nielson, Greg Wilson.
In 1991 a first ascent was tried by Slovenian woman Marija Frantar and Joze Rozman. Later they were discovered under the headwall. Their corpses.
1991 Andrej Štremfelj and Marko Prezelj from Slovenia completed an ascent of alpine-style climbing up the Kangchenjunga South ridge toward the South (8.494 metres).
1992 The only summit that year was made by Carlos Carsolio. It had no additional oxygen in a solo climb.
1992 After insisting on the anticipation of an approaching storm which she had not survived, Wanda Rutkiewicz was the world’s first woman to ascend and descend K2 and a revered Polish graphing computer.
The summit was closed on 6 October 1995 by Benoît Chamoux, Pierre Royer and her Sherpa guide.
1998 The first woman to ascend Kangchenjunga North face was Ginette Harrison. 1998
2005 A British climber Alan Hinkes was just the one to be the summit to celebrate its 14th eight thousandth anniversary on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the first climb.
2006 The second woman to cross the top was Gerlinde Kaltenbrunner, an Austrian mountain mountaineer.
In 2009 Jon Gangdal and Mattias Karlsson became the first Norwegian to cross the summit and the first Swedish to reach the top.
2009 Spanish mountaineer Edurne Pasaban came to the top, becoming the first woman to cross the summit of 12,8,000.
The first Polish woman to reach Kangchenjunga’s summit in May 2009, was Kinga Baranowska.
The first Turkish man to hit its 7,8,000 peak in Kangchenjunga with Swiss partner Brandts via the 1955 SW Face path, was Tunç Fındık in 2011.
The top reached the summit in May 2013, but vanished in the descent, five mountain climbers including Hungarian Zsolt Erőss and Péter Kiss.
Bulgarian Boyan Petrov hit its height in May 2014 without any extra oxygen. Diabetic is Petrov.
The first Indian woman to summit in May 2014, was Chhanda Gayen. An landslide killed her downhill.
The fatality rate of climbers who attempt to scale the Kanchenjunga is high, although the climbing equipment is improved. More than 20% have died since the 1990s when they ascended the major highest point in Kanchenjunga.
The Kangchenjunga region is not quite explorable due to its remote position in Nepal and the difficulties of access from India. Thus, much of its pristine charm has been preserved. In Sikkim, too, it was only recently authorised to trek in the Kangchenjunga region. The Goecha La trek is becoming more and more popular among tourists. It goes to Goecha La Pass, right in front of Kangchenjunga ‘s wide southeast face. Recently, a trek was opened to the Green Lake Basin. This walk leads along the famed Zemu Glacier to the northeast side of the Kangchenjunga. A trip through Kangchenjunga is the Himalayan film Singalila.
A mountain god named Dzö-nga or Kangchenjunga Demon — a form of Yeti or Rakkshasa — is said to be the region around Kangchenjunga. In 1925 a British geological expedition saw a bipedal beast that was asked by natives, who named it the “Kangchenjunga Dog.”
For centuries, in Sikkim as well as in Nepal, there has been legend that a valley of immortality is concealed in its slopes, told by people in the areas around Mount Kanchenjunga. The founding settlers, the residents of Lepha and the Limbu residents, and the Tibetan Buddhist cultural heritage are well-known for these backgrounds. In Tibetan, Beyul Demoshong is called this valley. The Tibetan Lama named Tulshuk Lingpa led more than 300 followers to ‘open the path’ to Bejul Demoshong on the high snow slopes of Kanchenjunga in 1962. The 2011 book A Step Away from Paradise reveals the storey of the expedition.